A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillating material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
It consists of a scintillator which generates photons in response to incident radiation, a sensitive photodetector usually a photomultiplier tube PMTa charge-coupled device CCD camera, or a photodiodewhich converts the light to an electrical signal and electronics to process this signal. Scintillation counters are widely used in radiation protection, assay of radioactive materials and physics research because they can be made inexpensively yet with good quantum efficiencyand can measure both the intensity and the energy of incident radiation.
The modern electronic scintillation counter was invented in by Sir Samuel Curran   whilst he was working on the Manhattan Project at the University of California at Berkeley. There was a requirement to measure the radiation from small quantities of uranium and his innovation was to use one of the newly-available highly sensitive photomultiplier tubes made by the Radio Corporation of America to accurately count the flashes of light from a scintillator subjected to radiation.
This built upon the work of earlier researchers such as Antoine Henri Becquerelwho discovered radioactivity whilst working on the phosphorescence of uranium salts in Previously scintillation events had to be laboriously detected by eye using a spinthariscope which was a simple microscope to observe light flashes in the scintillator. When an ionizing particle passes into the scintillator material, atoms are excited along a track.
For charged particles the track is the path of the particle itself. For gamma rays unchargedtheir energy is converted to an energetic electron via either the photoelectric effectCompton scattering or pair production.
The chemistry of atomic de-excitation in the scintillator produces a multitude of low-energy photons, typically near the blue end of the visible spectrum. The quantity is proportional to the energy deposited by the ionizing particle. These can be directed to the photocathode of a photomultiplier tube which emits at most one electron for each arriving photon due to the photoelectric effect.
This group of primary electrons is electrostatically accelerated and focused by an electrical potential so that they strike the first dynode of the tube. The impact of a single electron on the dynode releases a number of secondary electrons which are in turn accelerated to strike the second dynode. Each subsequent dynode impact releases further electrons, and so there is a current amplifying effect at each dynode stage.
Each stage is at a higher potential than the previous to provide the accelerating field. The resultant output signal at the anode is a measurable pulse for each group of photons from an original ionizing event in the scintillator that arrived at the photocathode and carries information about the energy of the original incident radiation.
When it is fed to a charge amplifier which integrates the energy information, an output pulse is obtained which is proportional to the energy of the particle exciting the scintillator.
scintillation - Meaning in Tamil
The number of such pulses per unit time also gives information about the intensity of the radiation. In some applications individual pulses are not counted, but rather only the average current at the anode is used as a measure of radiation intensity. The scintillator must be shielded from all ambient light so that external photons do not swamp the ionization events caused by incident radiation.
To achieve this a thin opaque foil, such as aluminized mylar, is often used, though it must have a low enough mass to minimize undue attenuation of the incident radiation being measured. The article on the photomultiplier tube carries a detailed description of the tube's operation.
The scintillator consists of a transparent crystalusually a phosphor, plastic usually containing anthracene or organic liquid see liquid scintillation counting that fluoresces when struck by ionizing radiation. Cesium iodide CsI in crystalline form is used as the scintillator for the detection of protons and alpha particles.
Sodium iodide NaI containing a small amount of thallium is used as a scintillator for the detection of gamma waves and zinc sulfide ZnS is widely used as a detector of alpha particles. Zinc sulfide is the material Rutherford used to perform his scattering experiment. Lithium iodide LiI is used in neutron detectors. The quantum efficiency of a gamma-ray detector per unit volume depends upon the density of electrons in the detector, and certain scintillating materials, such as sodium iodide and bismuth germanateachieve high electron densities as a result of the high atomic numbers of some of the elements of which they are composed.
However, detectors based on semiconductorsnotably hyperpure germaniumhave better intrinsic energy resolution than scintillators, and are preferred where feasible for gamma-ray spectrometry. In the case of neutron detectors, high efficiency is gained through the use of scintillating materials rich in hydrogen that scatter neutrons efficiently.Sparkfun tb6612fng library
Liquid scintillation counters are an efficient and practical means of quantifying beta radiation. Scintillation counters are used to measure radiation in a variety of applications including hand held radiation survey meterspersonnel and environmental monitoring for radioactive contaminationmedical imaging, radiometric assay, nuclear security and nuclear plant safety.
Several products have been introduced in the market utilising scintillation counters for detection of potentially dangerous gamma-emitting materials during transport. These include scintillation counters designed for freight terminals, border security, ports, weigh bridge applications, scrap metal yards and contamination monitoring of nuclear waste.
There are variants of scintillation counters mounted on pick-up trucks and helicopters for rapid response in case of a security situation due to dirty bombs or radioactive waste. In the United Kingdomthe Health and Safety Executiveor HSE, has issued a user guidance note on selecting the correct radiation measurement instrument for the application concerned.We are constantly improving our dictionaries.
Still, it is possible that some words are not available. You can ask other members in forums, or send us email. We will try and help. Meaning and definitions of scintillation, translation of scintillation in Tamil language with similar and opposite words.
Spoken pronunciation of scintillation in English and in Tamil. Tags for the entry "scintillation" What scintillation means in Tamil, scintillation meaning in Tamil, scintillation definition, explanation, pronunciations and examples of scintillation in Tamil. Also see: scintillation in Hindi. And more Search for:. Tips Note that 'matra' is added after the consonant. Ask in Tamil Forum.
Send us email. English Tamil Dictionary for iOS. Recent Search History. Our Apps are nice too! English Tamil Dictionary. We provide a facility to save words in lists. Custom Word Lists You can create your own lists to words based on topics. Create a new list. Social Sign-in. Member Account. Remember me. Forgot password? New user?Add scintillating to one of your lists below, or create a new one. A happy-go-lucky person does not plan much and accepts what happens without becoming worried.
Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word.
The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Exciting and interesting. It was a superb script and a scintillating production.
English to Bangla Meaning :: scintillation
Translations of scintillating in Chinese Traditional. Need a translator?2 liter coke bottle price
Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of scintillating? Browse scintigraphy. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day happy-go-lucky. About this. March 17, Read More. New Words computer doping.The numerical value of scintillating in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5. The invulnerable, matchless and exclusive live a life like dazzling fish in a scintillating seascape behind glass. Everybody may admire them, nobody can touch them and there is no fear or guilt in overexposing opulence and fortune.
I was the better player today and I deserved to win, this title gives me a lot of confidence. Medvedev, who continued his scintillating run of form after winning titles in Sydney, Winston-Salem, and Tokyo last year, has already set his sight on a spot in the world's top Jesse Louis Jackson :.
Dream is not a revelation. If a dream affords the dreamer some light on himself, it is not the person with closed eyes who makes the discovery but the person with open eyes lucid enough to fit thoughts together.
Dream- a scintillating mirage surrounded by shadows- is essentially poetry. Men need usually full training while Women require often only a fine tuning for a scintillating acting in a real movie called life. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.
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Princeton's WordNet 0. Wiktionary 0. Webster Dictionary 0. How to pronounce scintillating? Alex US English. Daniel British. Karen Australian. Veena Indian.
How to say scintillating in sign language? Numerology Chaldean Numerology The numerical value of scintillating in Chaldean Numerology is: 1 Pythagorean Numerology The numerical value of scintillating in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5. Examples of scintillating in a Sentence Erik Pevernagie : The invulnerable, matchless and exclusive live a life like dazzling fish in a scintillating seascape behind glass.
Jesse Louis Jackson : Dream is not a revelation. Anuj Somany : Men need usually full training while Women require often only a fine tuning for a scintillating acting in a real movie called life.The best way to learn proper English is to read news report, and watch news on TV.
Watching TV shows is a great way to learn casual English, slang words, understand culture reference and humor. If you have already watched these shows then you may recall the words used in the following dialogs. Meaning and definitions of scintillation, translation in Bangla language for scintillation with similar and opposite words. Also find spoken pronunciation of scintillation in Bangla and in English language.
What scintillation means in Banglascintillation meaning in Bangla, scintillation definition, examples and pronunciation of scintillation in Bangla language. Go To Android App. English to Bangla Meaning :: scintillation Scintillation :. Noun 1 physics 2 a rapid change in brightness; a brief spark or flash 3 a brilliant display of wit 4 the quality of shining with a bright reflected light 5 the twinkling of the stars caused when changes in the density of the earth's atmosphere produce uneven refraction of starlight.
This dictionary has the largest database for word meaning. This dictionary helps you to search quickly for Bangla to English translation, English to Bangla translation.
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Your Search History You have no word in search history!Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle an electronan alpha particlean ionor a high-energy photon. See scintillator and scintillation counter for practical applications. The process of scintillation is one of luminescence whereby light of a characteristic spectrum is emitted following the absorption of radiation.
The emitted radiation is usually less energetic than that absorbed. Scintillation is an inherent molecular property in conjugated and aromatic organic molecules and arises from their electronic structures. Scintillation also occurs in many inorganic materials, including salts, gases, and liquids.
Organic materials form molecular crystals where the molecules are loosely bound by Van der Waals forces. The ground state of 12 C is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2. In valence bond theory, when carbon forms compounds, one of the 2s electrons is excited into the 2p state resulting in a configuration of 1s 2 2s 1 2p 3. To describe the different valencies of carbon, the four valence electron orbitals, one 2s and three 2p, are considered to be mixed or hybridized in several alternative configurations.
For example, in a tetrahedral configuration the s and p 3 orbitals combine to produce four hybrid orbitals. In another configuration, known as trigonal configuration, one of the p-orbitals say p z remains unchanged and three hybrid orbitals are produced by mixing the s, p x and p y orbitals.
This occurs when their nodal planes are coplanar. This model is used for describing polycyclic hydrocarbons consisting of condensed systems of benzenoid rings in which no C atom belongs to more than two rings and every C atom is on the periphery. The ring can be approximated as a circle with circumference l. The wave-function of the electron orbital must satisfy the condition of a plane rotator:. Since the electron can have spin up and spin down and can rotate about the circle in both directions all of the energy levels except the lowest are doubly degenerate.
Absorption of radiation is followed by molecular vibration to the S 1 state. This is followed by a de-excitation to the S 0 state called fluorescence. The population of triplet states is also possible by other means. The triplet states decay with a much longer decay time than singlet states, which results in what is called the slow component of the decay process the fluorescence process is called the fast component.
This property of scintillators allows for pulse shape discrimination: it is possible to identify which particle was detected by looking at the pulse shape.
Of course, the difference in shape is visible in the trailing side of the pulse, since it is due to the decay of the excited states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Scintillation disambiguation.Gupta brothers 786 blogspot
The theory and practice of scintillation counting. Pergamon Press, Ltd. Radiation Detection and Measurement. Categories : Condensed matter physics Scattering, absorption and radiative transfer optics. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
Download as PDF Printable version.We are constantly improving our dictionaries. Still, it is possible that some words are not available. You can ask other members in forums, or send us email.
We will try and help. Meaning and definitions of scintillation, translation of scintillation in Telugu language with similar and opposite words. Spoken pronunciation of scintillation in English and in Telugu. Tags for the entry "scintillation" What scintillation means in Telugu, scintillation meaning in Telugu, scintillation definition, explanation, pronunciations and examples of scintillation in Telugu.
Also see: scintillation in Hindi. And more Search for:. Tips Note that 'matra' is added after the consonant. Ask in Telugu Forum. Send us email. English Telugu Dictionary for iOS. Recent Search History. Our Apps are nice too! English Telugu Dictionary. We provide a facility to save words in lists. Custom Word Lists You can create your own lists to words based on topics. Create a new list. Social Sign-in. Member Account. Remember me. Forgot password? New user?Plr content waste of time
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